Private cloud, public cloud, hybrid cloud and multicloud: what are the differences?

The level of “Cloud” maturity of organizations and companies continues to progress. In 2022, 60% of corporate data is stored in the cloud (Zippia), which means that a majority of companies have opted for a cloud solution in order to keep the most valuable data, particularly for security and safety reasons. reliability.

For a long time, organizations have ensured the backup of their most sensitive data on their own premises, on physical media (servers, magnetic tapes, etc.). Some still use these methods. It must be admitted that they are often reassuring: keeping your data at hand in the most literal sense of the term gives an appreciable illusion of security.

However, IT departments are increasingly aware of the importance of external servers for backing up their company's data, as they offer both more flexibility and more security.

Private, public, hybrid or multicloud cloud: which solution best suits the needs of IT departments and, more generally, the objectives of companies? It all depends on the use made of it. In this article, find out what the big differences are between these four solutions, and what benefits businesses can get from them depending on their priorities.

Private, public, hybrid or multicloud cloud?
Agreeing to entrust your data to a service provider in order to take advantage of the advantages of the cloud is not easy. Security concerns remain a barrier for many businesses. However, it is possible to move to the cloud safely as long as you make sure to choose the solution adapted to your needs. So, private cloud, public cloud, hybrid cloud or multicloud?

The cloud, a considerable market
A Markess by Exaegis study anticipates annual growth of 14% for the Cloud computing market in France, with a total activity volume forecast of 27 billion euros in 2025. At the European level, this sector should generate a turnover of 560 billion euros by 2030 (government source).

We are therefore talking about a considerable market. In 2020 alone, 61% of companies migrated to the Cloud (Zippia). According to a study conducted by IT Infosys, this migration is essentially motivated by the needs for integration of emerging technologies and competitiveness.

For companies that decide to migrate, the objective is above all to improve the customer/user experience. They also want to harmonize the technological environment in which employees operate.

The Cloud is establishing itself sustainably in businesses
SaaS (Software as a Service) is growing considerably around the world, and not only in terms of technological innovations. An offering of additional services is being structured in parallel.

SaaS applications are establishing themselves sustainably in small and large businesses. They are now establishing themselves as major levers of development, both in terms of outsourcing, simplification and acceleration of business activity.

If the Cloud is becoming more and more established within organizations, they still need to choose the one that meets their needs. Private, public, hybrid cloud, or even multicloud... Each solution has its own advantages, and CIOs must master the ins and outs of the different cloud solutions in order to make the right choice for their organization.

Towards massive adoption of cloud solutions (private, public, hybrid or multicloud)
Currently, however, companies that have placed their entire information system on the cloud remain in the minority. If we are to believe certain recent studies, the cloud will nevertheless become essential in the years to come.

According to the latest study carried out by Gartner, in 2023, IT spending is expected to reach $1.3 billion in Europe, an increase of 3.7% compared to the previous year.

However, this spending is likely to be directed more and more towards the Cloud: experts predict that 45% of companies' IT budgets could be directed towards cloud solutions by 2026 (Zippia).

A few years ago, Gartner predicted that the cloud would become the default option for enterprise software deployment – and that prediction is on track to come true.

In fact, publishers have taken note of this trend. Many of them already offer online solutions to gradually move away from on-premise deployment.

Tomorrow, 100% cloud companies?
Companies that do not follow this trend risk finding themselves in the minority in the near future. Today, many organizations choose progressive adoptionve by migrating their least critical platforms as a priority.

Public cloud is a very common deployment option. The site defines the public cloud as follows: “Public Cloud services are provided in a virtualized environment, built using shared hardware resources, and accessible over a public network.”

The public cloud: flexibility for businesses
In this case, the servers and applications are therefore shared. Cloud resources are owned and operated by a third-party provider. This solution is interesting, particularly in terms of costs. There are no infrastructure costs for the company.

She also does not have to worry about maintenance which is managed by the service provider. This type of service provides businesses with processing power that they do not have in-house.

Coping with peaks in activity using the public cloud
The public cloud also allows great flexibility for businesses. In fact, it makes it possible to cope with peaks of activity. Companies have the possibility to evolve the resources at their disposal according to their needs. The study conducted by IT Infosys shows executives favor this solution for its scalability and availability.

The private cloud: the security choice
If companies have been able to see the advantages they could derive from the public cloud, many of them are choosing the private cloud for security and regulatory compliance reasons.

Indeed, the private cloud is based on the individualization of resources and services. Security is a key element of this solution.

The company benefits in particular from dedicated servers and HSM boxes and an optimal level of guarantee for data confidentiality. No permeability is possible with other customers. Using dedicated hardware adds physical partitioning in addition to logical partitioning.

SecNumCloud and private cloud: the winning duo
At the beginning of 2019, Oodrive became the first player to obtain the ANSSI security visa via the SecNumCloud qualification (this qualification was renewed in 2022 for a period of three years).

The qualified private cloud SecNumCloud, from Oodrive, is based on a dedicated infrastructure which guarantees authenticated access, analyzes all activities in real time and ensures the resumption of activity.

Hybrid cloud: a combination of private and public cloud
If companies are sometimes cautious when it comes to the public cloud, they have more easily adopted the private cloud, this solution being closer to their internal mode of operation. But it is generally more expensive because the infrastructures are dedicated.

To no longer have to choose between the two solutions, the hybrid cloud is proving to be a good compromise for a growing number of organizations. However, studies have shown that only one in four organizations currently have the resources needed to manage a hybrid IT environment.

With a hybrid solution, companies take the best from both worlds. And they benefit from greater flexibility and an infrastructure adapted to their needs. They therefore maintain control over their most sensitive data and applications. And as a bonus, businesses benefit from the advantages of the public cloud in terms of flexibility and availability.

Multicloud: a multi-service approach
The ability to host virtual infrastructure off-site tends to boost IT systems and provide CIOs with much greater choice. In doing so, over time, a fourth cloud solution has emerged: the multicloud approach, which leverages a variety of cloud services and providers.

A multicloud consists of deploying several cloud solutions of the same type (exclusively private cloud or public cloud) from different providers, without these environments being interconnected.

Multicloud is therefore different from hybrid cloud, since the latter amounts to deploying distinct cloud environments, but interconnecting them. In fact, if all hybrid clouds are multiclouds, the opposite is not true!

The adoption of a multicloud environment is the result of intention or chance. In the first case, the IT department intends to benefit from distinct cloud solutions which, each, better responds to an aspect of the company's activity (control of sensitive data, redundant storage, proximity to the Cloud provider to guarantee high availability of services …).

In the second case, a multicloud can be the result of “Shadow IT”, when the tools deployed without the knowledge of the IT department become too important and require dedicated control. But whatever the scenario, a multicloud approach is generally chosen to optimize performance and